There are many kinds of materials applied to the shaft, mainly according to the use conditions of the shaft, the requirements for the strength, rigidity and other mechanical properties of the shaft, the heat treatment method adopted, and the manufacturing process is considered at the same time, and the economical rationality is sought, and the design calculation is used to select The material of the shaft.
The material of the shaft is generally carbon steel or alloy steel that has been subjected to rolling and forging. For shafts with smaller diameters, they can be made of round steel; for conditions, cold drawn steel can be used directly; for important shafts with large diameter or step diameter variation, forgings are used. To save metal and improve processability, large diameter shafts can also be made hollow with welded or forged flanges.
The commonly used materials for the shaft are high quality carbon structural drawings such as 35, 45 and 50, of which 45 is the most commonly used. Less important and less loaded shafts can be used with ordinary carbon structural steels such as Q235 and Q275; for large forces, the size of the shaft is limited, and some alloy shafts with special requirements are available. When alloy steel is used, it is preferred to use silicon-manganese steel and boron steel in line with China's resources. For structurally complex shafts (eg spline shafts, hollow shafts, etc.), chrome steel is available for dimensional stability and heat treatment reduction; chrome-nickel steel is available for shafts that are important for large sections; for high temperature or corrosive conditions The shaft can be made of heat-resistant steel or stainless steel.
At normal working temperature, the modulus of elasticity of the alloy structural steel is similar to that of the carbon structural steel, so it is not suitable to select the alloy structural steel only to improve the wind of the shaft.